Vascular endothelium is a thin monolayer of cells that constitute the lining of blood vessels and organs (1-3). A hallmark of many diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, viral infections, etc) is highlighted in the dysfunctional states of the vascular endothelium. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system — heart, large blood vessels, and small capillaries (1). And the cells form the barrier between blood and organ tissues (3).
Notable functions of the vascular endothelium:
1) Controls and regulates vascular relaxation and constriction;
2) Regulates homeostasis of solutes, fluid, macromolecules, hormones, platelets, and blood cells;
3) Directs “foreign materials” to inflammatory cell types;
4) Regulates blood fluidity;Continue Reading...